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文章分享 yang - 最新訊息 | 2022-06-06 | 點閱數: 850

王舒芸專欄: 小孩「國家一起養」 碰到疫情,就不算數了嗎?

2022-05-31 中正大學社會福利學系副教授/王舒芸
資料來源:願景工程 https://visionproject.org.tw/story/6244

每次討論兒童是不是公共財,偶爾覺得迷惑;國家到底有沒有像總統說的做到「國家跟你一起養」政策願景,也總是吵成一團。

但日前行政院拍板的紓困措施,倒讓人看得清楚明白:當資源有限時,家長得到的「國家一起養」,只剩口惠不實的錦上添花;至於雪中送炭的損失補償與權益肯認,往往變成「孩子你生的,你自己負責」。

 

家長被迫在小孩染疫風險與經濟損失間抉擇

行政院5月26日拍板的振興作為,為達成「正常生活、積極防疫、穩健開放」,以「助產業、護勞工、減負擔、穩金流」等面向,預計發出345.6億元紓困與振興經費。

但去年一次性的「孩童家庭防疫補助」,不見了!更遑論民間數度呼籲放寬適用條件、提高補助額度的有薪「防疫照顧假」,完全不見蹤影。

這樣合不合理呢?大家看到的實情是,未能及時施打疫苗的兒童,是這波Omicron影響較大的年齡層,在台灣「與病毒共存」的策略下,各縣市對停課停托的規定不斷滾動式修正。家長的心情跟著提心吊膽,工作時間也就跟著靠「花花班」支撐。婦女新知基金會秘書長覃玉蓉說出許多家長兩面夾殺的心聲:「要不就承受孩子染疫的風險,要不就得承受請假不上班的經濟損失」。

許多國家在幼童無法普遍施打疫苗時,也依靠停托停課來降低染疫風險。但是,他們意識到疫情不只是健康議題,要築起防守高牆,除了第一線的醫護人員,更需要家長暫離工作崗位,居家陪伴孩子,才有能耐挺過疫情。因此及早建置制度性的「有酬家庭照顧假」、或及於八歲的「彈性有酬育嬰假」讓家長可以調配時間、保護小孩、更協助國家防疫度過疫情。

這雖然不是台灣第一次大規模停課、停托,但跟上波不同的是,疫情未到三級警戒,成人無法名正言順地居家上班。因此,除了受雇者自己的染疫風險外,「家中有沒有照顧需求」,成了職場上一條若隱若現的分隔線。

國家紓困政策,沒能接住家長及照顧者

家長如此進退維谷,當然是擔心孩子染疫;但家長也高度配合這個社會期待與政府規定,積極防疫,因此得以保全醫療量能,讓台灣社會早日走出疫情高峰。

也就是說,家長硬著頭皮請假,在家顧小孩,孩子免於染疫,讓整體社會受益;可是,承擔的高額照顧時間成本與經濟損失,只有家長獨自承擔。

國家透過紓困政策的分配,讓年輕世代活生生地看見:「成為家長或照顧者,不論有酬無酬,在疫情期間都只能自力救濟,沒有能接得住你的照顧網!」

國家只在財政有餘裕、少子化不斷被國際亮紅燈時,大發各種其實無效的津貼、補助,顯示「政府有做事」;但大難來時,有小孩的家長和有照顧需求的勞工,被視為理所當然的照顧者,後果自負,排除在紓困補助之外。

家長當然擔心孩子、當然要保護孩子。但是,家長的工作或收入因為保護孩子不染疫而犧牲時,國家真的有「一起養」、一起承擔的行動嗎?光是口號,是無法保護孩子不染疫的啊。

你說,孩童,是公共財嗎?「國家一起養」碰到疫情,就不算數了嗎? 政府的每一個政策抉擇,都在跟人民傳達清楚的訊息!

風險社會中是否有遮風避雨的屋簷,或是要靠一己之力

當勞工因為疫情受損時,政府紓困代表政府肯認大規模的染疫風險不只是勞工或雇主責任,因此國家挺身而出,作勞雇經濟風險的最後一道防線。

那麼,因為照顧需求而必須暫離工作、以作為防護孩子第一道防線的家長,為何卻必須用半薪事假、無薪防疫照顧假、特休假(原本是放空充電用的),得不到政府的必要肯認與補償?

那麼,不論政府用多少預算用力地喊「國家和你一起養」。家長此時此刻感受到的,只剩無頭蒼蠅般的無助、只剩「自己小孩自己顧」。

當越來越多年輕世代因為成為父母、或中壯年世代因為照顧責任而陷入兩難時,請問:他們會怎麼選?盡量減少自己的照顧責任,不妨礙自我發展,才是經濟理性的選擇,例如:不要生小孩。

當我們處在一個風險社會,公共政策就是用來決定你會被風險重擊、還是可以軟著陸。政策能決定大雨來時,有沒有遮風避雨的屋簷?還是要靠己之力撐起堅固的傘,才能免於風吹雨淋。

這次年輕人清楚的看見,國家優先保護的,永遠是那些在市場上有經濟價值的人!至於因此而來的「照顧風險」,請學會自己承擔,國家接不住你

從抉擇、選擇到卸責

當經濟發展跟照顧責任擺在面前,請問,有能力、有經濟資本選擇的人,會怎麼做?這是年輕人自私?還是,這是社會教給他們的啟示?

當你預期因為疫情與照顧工作而所得中斷時,你只能搶私人保單止血、只能求助家庭網絡接住照顧。那麼,下一次大浪來襲,你學到的或許是「盡量不要成為家長、避免照顧責任、逃離必要性工作」,才能躲開進退維谷的窘境。

當越來越多人不願意成為家長、越來越多人不願意從事照顧工作以支持社會的運作時,這個國家會變成什麼樣子?

我們是一個看起來很尊重個人選擇的國家。可是擺在眼前的選擇,從來不是有妥適配套,讓你不論選哪一種,都不至於受到排除、汙名、歧視、或不當對待的真實選擇;而是「你自己選的、要自己負責」。那些後果,要自己想辦法承擔。

這是真實的選擇?還是只是卸責?不生小孩、不承擔照顧責任,這真的只是年輕世代的自私而已嗎?還是是政策和整體社會傳達的潛訊息?

「照顧盲」的決策者何時才能看見照顧的公共性?

疫情,讓我們看見風險社會中,人的脆弱性;但也讓我們看見,社會互助可以發揮多強大的能量,讓台灣的醫療防護揚名國際。

可惜的是,由男人主導的公共防疫與紓困政策,陷入了「照顧盲」。不論是家人間的照顧、或是有酬工作的照顧,都「以愛之名」,丟給了女人。

如果停課防疫如此大規模、也不能咎責於家長、而且可預見有許多女性就業將會受嚴重衝擊時,仍然喚不來政府對照顧價值的制度性肯認。請問,決策者何時才能看見「照顧的公共性」?

請政府千萬不要忘了:紓困方案必須要「以制度支持照顧」作為基礎,才能穩穩接住醫療量能與經濟發展!

請以真實的政策證明:孩子「國家一起養」,不是一句謊言!

 

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